Millions of years ago, all the continents were merged in one large land mass known as Pangea. This was about 250 million years ago. They gradually began to drift apart and formed the separate continents that we are familiar with today. The formation of separate continental land masses changed the flow of ocean currents and winds, and isolated Antarctica.
This continental drift leads to climate change, as it brings about a change in the following.
- Physical feature of the lithosphere
- Position of the land masses
- Mountains and water bodies
The impacts of the drift are felt in the atmosphere and oceans, thereby affecting the climate.
The continental land masses are still moving, though we may not see or feel this. The Indian subcontinent is a good example. Even today, it continues to push northwards against the Eurasian land mass, forcing the Himalayas to rise upwards. It has been proved that the Himalayan Mountains are rising by about 1 mm every year!