Substantial reduction in CO2 emissions can be achieved from energy use in buildings. Buildings can be made energy-efficient in several ways.
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Policies for Reducing CO2 Emissions
To ensure emissions reductions up to 2020 requires the rapid design, implementation and enforcement of strong policies promoting energy-efficiency for buildings and equipment, renewable energy (where cost-effective), and advanced design techniques for new buildings.
There are a few barriers such as hidden costs, limitation to finance, and subsidies on energy prices. These can be overcome only through a whole package of interventions combined with effective implementation. Building codes, appliances standards, and tax exemption are the most effective CO2 emission reduction policies.
However, the overall impact of policies so far has been limited because of - slow implementation processes; lack of regular updating of building codes, appliance standards, and labelling; inadequate funding and lack of proper enforcement.
In case of increased global temperatures, energy demand for air conditioning will increase, thus increasing the fossil fuel consumption. Energy use for heating will decline in temperate climates, and that for cooling will increase in most regions of the world. This can cause a positive feedback loop, wherein more mechanical cooling will emit more GHGs, despite reducing temperatures locally.