Know Climate Change

Adaptation and Mitigation


Adaptation Measures in Key Sectors

Following is a brief account of the adaptation options or probable strategies for some identified sectors, along with the basic policy frameworks and the chief constraints and opportunities in their implementation.


Adaptation option/strategy

Underlying policy framework

Key constraints and opportune to Implementation (Normal font: constraints; italics: opportunities)


Expanded rainwater harvesting; water storage and conservation techniques; water re-use; desalination; water-use and irrigation efficiency

National water policies and integrated water resources management; water-related hazards management

Financial, human resources and
physical barriers;

Integrated water resources management; synergies with
other sectors


Adjustment of planting dates and crop variety; crop relocation; improved land management, e.g. erosion control and soil protection through tree planting

R&D policies; institutional reform; land tenure and land reform; training; capacity building; crop insurance; financial incentives, e.g. subsidies and tax credits

Technological and financial constraints; access to new varieties; markets

Longer growing season in higher latitudes; revenues from 'new' products

/ settlement (Including coastal zones)

Relocation; seawalls and storm surge barriers; dune reinforcement; land acquisition and creation of marsh lands/wetlands as buffer against sea level rise and flooding; protection of existing natural barriers

Standards and regulations that integrate climate change considerations into design; land-use policies: building codes; insurance

Financial and technological barriers; availability of relocation space

Integrated policies and management; synergies with sustainable development goals

Human hearth

Heat-health action plans; emergency medical services; improved climate-sensitive disease surveillance and control; safe water and improved sanitation

Public health policies that recognize climate risk; strengthened health services; regional and international cooperation

Limits to human tolerance (vulnerable groups); knowledge limitations; financial capacity

Upgraded health services; improved quality of life


Diversification of tourism attractions and revenues; shitting ski slopes to higher altitudes and glaciers; artificial snow-making

Integrated planning (e.g. carrying capacity, linkages with other sectors); financial incentives, e.g. subsidies and tax credits

Appeal/marketing of new attractions; financial and logistical challenges; potential adverse impact on other sectors (e.g.
artificial snow-making may increase energy use);

Revenues from 'new' attractions; involvement of wider group of stakeholders


Realignment / relocation; design standards and planning for roads, rail and other infrastructure to cope with warming and drainage

Integrating climate change considerations into national transport policy; investment in R&D for special situations, e.g. permafrost areas

Financial and technological barriers; availability of less vulnerable routes

Improved technologies and integration with key sectors (e.g. energy)


Strengthening of overhead transmission and distribution infrastructure; underground cabling for utilities; energy efficiency: use of renewable sources; reduced dependence on single sources of energy

National energy policies, regulations, and fiscal and financial incentives to encourage use of alternative sources; incorporating climate change m design standards

Access to viable alternatives; financial and technological barriers; acceptance of new technologies

Stimulation of new technologies; use of local resources

Source: IPCC, 2007

Now, let us learn about the major challenge in implementing these adaptation strategies.

Consideration Scenarios of Future Climate Change... Click to know

Although limited, there are now examples of consideration scenarios of future climate change as part of comprehensive risk management strategies at the city, regional, and national levels. For example, consideration of rise in sea level in the design of infrastructure such as the Confederation Bridge in Canada and a coastal highway in Micronesia (USA). France, Finland, and the UK have developed national strategies and frameworks to adapt to climate change.

At the city level, meanwhile, climate change scenarios are being considered by New York City as part of the review of its water supply system. A key feature of these procedures is explicit consideration of several climate variables, uncertainties associated with climate change projections, and time horizons for different adaptation responses.

Often, planned adaptation initiatives are also not undertaken as stand-alone measures, but embedded within broader sectoral initiatives such as water-resource planning, coastal defense, and risk reduction strategies, for example, consideration of climate change in the National Water Plan of Bangladesh.

Better Use of Water - Adaptation in inner Niger Delta
In the Niger Delta, a classic example of adaptation...

In the Niger Delta, a classic example of adaptation was set by the better use of water.

You can watch a video on ’TheWaterChannel’ on how this was achieved.

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