You have completed the topic Basics of Climate
Science. Let us summarize the key takeaways
from this topic.
- Weather is the fluctuating state of the atmosphere
around us, characterised by the temperature, wind,
precipitation, clouds and other weather elements.
- Climate refers to the average weather in terms
of the mean and its variability over a certain time-span
and a certain area. Climate is the result of a delicate
balance between the several elements including,
such as the sun, atmosphere, water systems, living
organisms, and topography.
- The climate system is an interactive system consisting
of five major componentsâ€” atmosphere, hydrosphere,
cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.
- The major layers of the atmosphere includeâ€”troposphere,
stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
- Although the components of the climate system
are very different in their composition, physical
and chemical properties, structure and behaviour;
they are all linked by fluxes of mass, heat and
- There are several natural causes that force climate
- Natural climate variation can be of the following
- Natural forcings of the climate system
- Natural variability of the climate
- External forcings are essentially linked to changes
in the orbital parameters of the earth that control
the intensity and location of incident solar radiation,
and fluctuations in solar energy.
- Internal forcings comprise all those that occur
within the earth system itself, in particular volcanic
activity, fluctuations in ocean circulations and
large-scale changes in the marine and terrestrial
biosphere or in the cryosphere.
- Greenhouse effect is a mechanism by which heat
energy is trapped by certain gases, such as carbon
dioxide, water vapour, and so on.
- Feedback is the response of the climate to the
internal variability of the climate system, and
to external forcings.
- Each individual in todayâ€™s world plays a role,
directly or indirectly, in contributing his or her
bit to climate change.
- The major human-induced causes include changes
in green house gas (GHG) concentrations, changes
in aerosol levels, and land use and land cover changes.