Know Climate Change

Impacts of Climate Change

Impacts in Africa

Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change. This situation is further worsened by its poor state of economic development and low adaptive capacity.


Click each sector to know about the impact on that sector of Africa.


Extreme poverty, frequent natural disasters such as droughts and floods, and heavy dependence of agriculture on rainfall further increases the continent’s vulnerability.

Click the highlighted spots to learn about the current and future vulnerabilities in different regions of Africa.

The Tragedy of Egypt
Egypt is one of the African countries that could be vulnerable...

Egypt is one of the African countries that could be vulnerable to water stress under climate change. Water used in the year 2000 was estimated at about 70 km3, which is already far in excess of the available resources.

A major challenge is to close the rapidly increasing gap between the limited water availability and the escalating demand for water from various sectors. The rate of water utilization has already reached its maximum in Egypt, and climate change will further worsen the situation.

Agriculture consumes about 85% of the annual total water resource, and plays a significant role in the Egyptian national economy, contributing about 20% of GDP. More than 70% of the cultivated area depends on low-efficiency surface irrigation systems, which cause high water losses, a decline in land productivity, water logging and salinity problems.

Climate change could have serious implications for Egypt.

  • Sea-level rise could impact the Nile Delta, and the people living in the delta and other coastal areas. Secondly, there will also be a high degree of uncertainty regarding the flow of the Nile.
  • Egypt will likely experience an increase in water stress, with a projected decline in precipitation and a projected population of between 115 million and 179 million by 2050. This will increase water stress in all sectors.
  • Temperature rises will likely reduce the productivity of major crops and increase their water requirements, thereby, directly decreasing crop water-use efficiency.

Source: IPCC, 2007