Impacts on Industry, Settlement, and Society
People migrating due to drought
Climate change vulnerabilities of industry, settlement, and society are mainly related to extreme weather events rather than to gradual climate change. However, the significance of gradual climate change â€“ for example, increases in the mean temperature â€“ lies mainly in variability, including changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme events.
Key vulnerabilities of industry, settlement, and society are most often related to the following.
- Climate phenomena that exceed thresholds for adaptation
- Rate and magnitude of climate change, particularly extreme weather events and/or abrupt climate change
- Limited access to resources (financial, human, and institutional) to cope
Migration, usually temporary and often from rural to urban areas, is a common response to calamities such as floods and famines, and large numbers of displaced people are a likely consequence of such extreme events. However, climate change may result in huge numbers of climate refugees. For example, studies of displacement within Bangladesh and to neighbouring India have drawn obvious links to increased flood hazard as a result of climate change. But, such migration also needs to be placed in the context of changing economic opportunities in the two countries and in the emerging mega-city of Dhaka, rising aspirations of the rural poor in Bangladesh, and rules on land inheritance and an ongoing process of land alienation in Bangladesh. However, the number of people who may become environment migrants is highly uncertain and unpredictable.
With this we have covered the impacts of climate change on sectors such as freshwater resources; ecosystems; food, fibre and forests; coastal systems and low-lying areas; health; industry, settlement, and society.